Journal of Global Infectious DiseasesOfficial Publishing of INDUSEM and OPUS 12 Foundation, Inc. Users online:1188  
Print this pageEmail this pageSmall font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size     
Home About us Editors Ahead of Print Current Issue Archives Search Instructions Subscribe Advertise Login 
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 114-119

Knockdown resistance, Rdl alleles, and the annual entomological Inoculation rate of wild mosquito populations from Lower Moshi, Northern Tanzania

1 Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, Mabogini Field Station, Moshi, Tanzania
2 Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814-4799,USA; Unité d'entomologie médicale, Institut Pasteur de la Guyane, Cayenne Cedex, French Guiana
3 Poseidon Science Foundation, New York, USA
4 Division of Livestock and Human Diseases Vector Control, Mosquito Section, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, Arusha, Tanzania

Correspondence Address:
Eliningaya J Kweka
Division of Livestock and Human Diseases Vector Control, Mosquito Section, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, Arusha, Tanzania

Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: Belgium Technical Cooperation, Belgium Embassy Tanzania., Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-777X.96776

Rights and Permissions

Aim: Understanding vector behavioral response due to ecological factors is important in the control of disease vectors. This study was conducted to determine the knockdown resistance (kdr) alleles, dieldrin resistance alleles, and entomological inoculation rates (EIRs) of malaria vectors in lower Moshi irrigation schemes for the mitigation of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: The study was longitudinal design conducted for 14 months. Mosquitoes were collected fortnightly by using a CDC miniature light trap in 20 houses. Mosquitoes were identified morphologically in the field, of which 10% of this population was identified to species level by using molecular techniques. Samples from this study population were taken for kdr and resistance to dieldrin (rdl) genes detection. Results: A total of 6220 mosquitoes were collected by using a light trap, of which 86.0% (n=5350) were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato and 14.0% (n=870) were Culex quinquefasciatus. Ten percent of the An. gambiae s.l. (n=535) collected were taken for species identification, of which 99.8% (n=534) were identified as An. arabiensis while 0.2% (n=1) were An. gambiae sensu stricto. Of the selected mosquitoes, 3.5% (n=19) were sporozoite positive. None of the mosquitoes tested had the kdr gene. The rdl resistant allele was detected at a frequency of 0.48 throughout the year. EIR was determined to be 0.54 ib/trap/year. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that the homozygous and the heterozygous resistance present in rdl genes demonstrated the effect of pesticide residues on resistance selection pressure in mosquitoes. A better insecticide usage protocol needs to be developed for farmers to use in order to avoid excessive use of pesticides. Key words: An. arabiensis, EIR, Knockdown mutation, Moshi, rdl locus, Tanzania

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded48    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 12    

Recommend this journal


Sitemap | What's New | Feedback | Copyright and Disclaimer | Privacy Notice | Contact Us
© 2008 Journal of Global Infectious Diseases | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th December, 2008