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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 191-196

A clinicohistopathological correlation of Hansen's disease in a rural tertiary care hospital of Central India

Department of Pathology Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Pravinkumar V Ghongade
Department of Pathology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sewagram, Wardha - 442 102, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jgid.jgid_58_20

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Background: Leprosy is an ancient, chronic granulomatous infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, principally affecting the skin and peripheral nerves. The clinical manifestations of leprosy are variable and can mimic a variety of other skin diseases. Thus, histopathological examination plays an important role in early diagnosis and management. Aim: The aim was to study the clinicohistopathological correlation of all suspected cases of Hansen's disease. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 207 skin biopsies obtained from patients clinically diagnosed as new lesion of leprosy in the department of pathology from 2016 to 2019. Demographic, clinical details of the patients were retrieved from hospital information system. Hematoxylin–eosin- and Fite–Faraco-stained sections were evaluated for features confirming leprosy and further categorized as per Ridley–Jopling system. Sensitivity, specificity, and concordance rates were studied. Results: The male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1. The agreement between histopathological and clinical diagnoses was more than 90% in all the subclasses except for borderline tuberculoid leprosy (BT) and tuberculoid leprosy (TT) which showed an agreement of 86.5% and 88.4%, respectively. The sensitivity of clinical diagnosis ranged from 69.70% for indeterminate to 100% for histoid and neuritic types. The specificity ranged from 90% for BT and TT to 100% for neuritic leprosy. Conclusion: Clinical diagnosis of early leprosy lesions offers difficulties even to experienced dermatologists as a patient presents in different clinicopathological forms, depending on host immune status. Thus, the correlation between clinical, histopathological, and bacteriological features is required for diagnosis and classification of leprosy. Nerve damage is irreversible; therefore, early detection and treatment is important to prevent Grade 2 disabilities.

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2008 Journal of Global Infectious Diseases | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th December, 2008