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LETTER TO EDITOR  
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 199-200
Bacteriophages as surrogate marker for inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by ultraviolet radiation to prevent COVID-19 transmission


Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

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Date of Submission11-Aug-2021
Date of Acceptance06-Sep-2021
Date of Web Publication23-Nov-2021
 

How to cite this article:
Nisha R, Rama C. Bacteriophages as surrogate marker for inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by ultraviolet radiation to prevent COVID-19 transmission. J Global Infect Dis 2021;13:199-200

How to cite this URL:
Nisha R, Rama C. Bacteriophages as surrogate marker for inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by ultraviolet radiation to prevent COVID-19 transmission. J Global Infect Dis [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Nov 30];13:199-200. Available from: https://www.jgid.org/text.asp?2021/13/4/199/330916




Sir,

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of COVID-19 transmits through aerosols, body fluid or by the fomites present around the infected individuals.[1] The ultraviolet (UV) radiation may be effectively used to limit the transmission of COVID-19. However, it must be maintained and monitored regularly to provide sufficient lethal dose. The bacteriophages may be used as indicator to monitor the lethal intensity of UV source for viruses.

In the present study, Acinetobacter phage AIIMS-Ab6 [Figure 1]a active against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus phage BHU-22, active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were used. These phages (106 plaque-forming units/ml) were exposed to UV of 254 wavelength, 400 mW/m2 intensity for 0, 5, 10, and 15 min and spotted on their respective bacterial lawn, and incubated overnight at 37°C to observe the lytic zones. The AIIMS-Ab6 and BHU-22 phages showed inactivation on 10 min and 5 min of UV exposure, respectively [Figure 1]b and [Figure 1]c.
Figure 1: (a) The Acinetobacter phage AIIMS-Ab6. (b) Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii bacterial lawn showing inactivation of phage on 10 and 15 min of ultraviolet exposure. (c) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterial lawn showing no lysis by bacteriophage after 5, 10, and 15 min of ultraviolet exposure

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The UV radiation does not produce any physical or chemical damage to the objects.[2] The combined UVA and UVC exposure completely inactivated the SARS-CoV-2 viral stock,[3] and UV light was also found suitable to disinfect the high touch area of the hospital surfaces.[4]

Therefore, we conclude that UV radiation is an effective mean to deactivate the model viruses; bacteriophage and strongly propose to apply the UV radiation of 254 wavelength, 400 mW/m2 intensity for 15 min, as disinfectant over COVID-19 exposed surfaces, hospital records, equipment, reusable personal protective equipment, handheld devices, and mobile phones to reduce the transmission of this deadly disease and to use the bacteriophages as surrogate marker to monitor the effective UV dose.

Research Quality and Ethics Statement

The authors followed applicable EQUATOR Network (http:// www.equator-network.org/) guidelines, notably the CARE guideline, during the conduct of this report.

Acknowledgment

The authors are thankful to Dr. Gopal Nath, Professor and Head, Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
World Health Organization (WHO). Modes of Transmission of Virus Causing COVID-19: Implications for IPC Precaution Recommendations. 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/detail/modes-oftransmission-of-virus-causing-covid-19-implications-for-ipcprecaution-recommendations. Accessed on 02 August 2021.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Reed NG. The history of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation for air disinfection. Public Health Rep 2010;125:15-27.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Heilingloh CS, Aufderhorst UW, Schipper L, Dittmer U, Witzke O, Yang D, et al. Susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 to UV irradiation. Am J Infect Control 2020;48:1273-5.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Casini B, Tuvo B, Cristina ML, Spagnolo AM, Totaro M, Baggiani A, et al. Evaluation of an Ultraviolet C (UVC) light-emitting device for disinfection of high touch surfaces in hospital critical areas. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019;16:E3572.  Back to cited text no. 4
    

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Correspondence Address:
Dr. Chaudhry Rama
Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jgid.jgid_230_21

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