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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 136-141

Evaluation of immunohistochemistry technique for diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in biopsy tissue specimen as compared to composite diagnostic criteria

1 Department of Respiratory Medicine, MS Ramaiah Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Microbiology, MS Ramaiah Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Pathology, MS Ramaiah Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
5 Department of Community Medicine, MS Ramaiah Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
6 Department of Microbiology, Intermediate Reference Laboratory, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. A S Arjun
No. 411, 3rd B Main, HRBR Layout, Kalyan Nagar, Bengaluru - 560 043, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jgid.jgid_112_22

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Introduction: Diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) has been challenging owing to its paucibacillary nature and diverse clinical manifestations. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) on biopsy specimens has presented a new perspective toward improving tuberculosis diagnosis. MPT64 is a unique antigen that has shown high sensitivity and specificity compared to other conventional techniques in its ability to diagnose tuberculosis as well as differentiate it from nontubercular mycobacteria. In this study, we aimed to analyze the utility of anti-MPT64 in the diagnosis of EPTB. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted over a period of 1 year, 52 nonrepetitive samples from 52 participants with a presumptive diagnosis of EPTB were collected and processed. The specimens were subjected to Ziehl–Neelsen staining, GeneXpert, tissue culture by mycobacterium growth indicator tube, H and E staining, and IHC with anti-MPT64. The sensitivity and specificity of anti-MPT64 was computed against a composite diagnostic criterion. Results: Fifty-two consecutive participants satisfying the study criteria were recruited. The mean age of the study population was 37.35 ± 18.71 years. Lymph node specimen accounted for majority of the specimen processed (n = 20, 38.5%). The sensitivity of anti-MPT64 in the diagnosis of EPTB was 68.29%, specificity was 90.90%, positive predictive value was 96.55%, and negative predictive value was 43.47%, when composite criteria were considered standard for diagnosis. Conclusion: Immunohistochemical staining by anti-MPT64 is useful in establishing microbiological diagnosis of EPTB on biopsy specimens.

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2008 Journal of Global Infectious Diseases | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th December, 2008