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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2022
Volume 14 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-44

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EDITORIAL  

State of the globe: Protecting health-care workers from aerosolized infections p. 1
Vivek Chauhan, Suman Thakur
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_37_22  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Effectiveness of “Resuscitation Cover All” in minimizing COVID-19 transmission to health-care workers during cardiopulmonary resuscitation Highly accessed article p. 3
K N J Prakash Raju, S Manu Ayyan, D Anandhi, Naman Jain, Ezhilkugan Ganessane
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_182_21  
Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease transmitted by contact, droplets, and aerosols. Front line health-care workers (HCWs), particularly emergency physicians and acute care providers, are vulnerable to being exposed while treating their sick patients. Despite appropriate personal protective equipment use, HCW gets infected, suggesting the need for multiple layers of protection such as barrier devices. Methods: We aimed to determine the effectiveness of our novel “Resuscitation Cover All”(RCA) in reducing the exposure of HCW to simulated respiratory particles and its feasibility during cardio pulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This was a pilot simulation-based study. Five CPR simulation sessions were performed in Standard and RCA protocols, individually. Exposures through contact, droplets, and aerosols were simulated using a standardized volume of liquid detergent. Under Wood's lamp illumination, exposures of participants were compared between the protocols. Rate and depth of chest compressions, time taken to intubate, interruptions in CPR, and first-pass success were analyzed. Results: Overall mean exposure in standard protocol was 4950.4 ± 1461.6 (95%confidence interval [CI]:3135.7–6765.2) sq.pixels and RCA protocol was 2203.6 ± 1499.0 (95%CI: 342.4–4064.9) sq.pixels (P = 0.019). In standard, chest compressor had the highest exposure of 3066.6 ± 1419.2 (95%CI: 2051.3–4081.9) sq.pixels followed by defibrillator assistant 1166.4 ± 767.4 (95%CI: 617.4–1715.4) sq.pixels. Chest compressor of RCA had reduced exposure compared to that of standard (P < 0.001). Hands were the most frequently exposed body part. Airway manager of RCA had no exposure over head and neck in any session. No significant difference in CPR performance metrics was observed. Conclusion: This pilot simulation-based study shows that the novel RCA device could minimize the exposure of HCW to simulated respiratory particles during CPR. Also, it might not alter the high-quality CPR performance metrics. We need more real-life evidence.
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Effectiveness of multimodal intervention to improve blood culture collection in the emergency department p. 10
Rosemary Shaji, Haritha Madigubba, Ketan Priyadarshi, P Anandh, Balamurugan Nathan, M Vivekanandan, Apurba Sankar Sastry
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_138_21  
Introduction: The blood culture (BC) contamination was a significant problem in our hospital, especially in the emergency department (ED). The study, therefore, was undertaken to improve the BC collection in the ED. Methods: The study was conducted for 1 year divided into two phases of 6 months each: Preintervention phase and intervention phase (regular and phlebotomist groups). The interventions comprised implementing standard protocol for BC collection and conducting educational sessions. In preintervention and regular groups, the BCs were collected by interns and technicians, while dedicated phlebotomist did so in the phlebotomist group. Data were analyzed and interpreted for the contamination rate as well as compliance in adequate filling of the requisition form. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. A value of P < 0.005 was considered statistically significant, and P < 0.01 was considered statistically significant. Results: In the preintervention group, 13.7% of specimens were reported as contaminated which was reduced to 4.2% and 3.2% in the regular and phlebotomist group, respectively, after intervention. Compliance of health-care workers to various elements of BC collection protocol was also found to be significantly improved in the intervention phase compared to the preintervention phase (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Implementation of this multimodal intervention resulted in a drastic reduction in BC contamination and improvement in compliance to BC collection protocol and filling of various parameters in the BC requisition form, thus improving the overall effectiveness of BC testing. It was also noted that the contamination rate was further reduced by implementing dedicated phlebotomist.
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BK polyomavirus hemorrhagic cystitis in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients p. 17
Sharon Anbumalar Lionel, Aby Abraham, Vikram Mathews, Kavitha Lakshmi, Asha Mary Abraham, Biju George
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_139_21  
Introduction: BK polyomavirus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (BKPyV-HC) is a well-recognized infective complication of hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) with increased organ dysfunction and mortality. This study was performed to describe the local incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of BKPyV infection. Methods: This retrospective case–control study was conducted between 2007 and 2016 from a tertiary hospital in South India. We identified HCT recipients diagnosed with BKPyV-HC and compared them with recipients over the same period who did not develop BK virus infection matched for age, sex, diagnosis, and donor type. We collected data from central electronic medical records and databases maintained in the departments of hematology and virology. Results: Over the study period, 1276 transplants were performed, of which 262 patients (20.5%) developed HC and 105 (8.2%) were BKPyV-positive. Grade 3 HC was most commonly (57.1%) seen, and the median time to develop BKPyV-HC was 35 (range 0–858) days. Survival was significantly lower in the cases (42.9% vs. 61%, P < 0.05). On univariate analysis, the protective effect of nonmyeloablative conditioning (P = 0.04), residual disease at the time of transplant in malignant conditions (P = 0.001), lower CD34 dose (P = 0.006), presence of acute graft versus host disease (GVHD, P < 0.001), reactivation of cytomegalovirus infection (P < 0.001), and presence of bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) (P < 0.001) were significant factors. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed the presence of acute GVHD (P = 0.041), bacterial UTI (P < 0.001), and residual disease (P = 0.009) at HCT as significant risk factors for BKPyV-HC. Conclusions: Our study affirms the homogeneity of BKPyV-HC disease in low- and middle-income HCT settings with prior reports and the need for therapeutic strategies to reduce its resultant mortality.
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Epitope identification and designing a potent multi-epitope vaccine construct against SARS-CoV-2 including the emerging variants p. 24
Sivasubramanian Srinivasan, Gracy Fathima Selvaraj, Vidya Gopalan, Padmapriya Padmanabhan, Kiruba Ramesh, Karthikeyan Govindan, Aswathi Chandran, Prabu Dhandapani, Kaveri Krishnasamy, Satish Srinivas Kitambi
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_96_21  
Introduction: The emergence of a novel coronavirus in China has turned into a SARS-CoV-2 pandemic with high fatality. As vaccines are developed through various strategies, their immunogenic potential may drastically vary and thus pose several challenges in offering immune responses against the virus. Methods: In this study, we adopted an immunoinformatics-aided approach for developing a new multi-epitope vaccine construct (MEVC). In silico approach was taken for the identification of B-cell and T-cell epitopes in the Spike protein, for MEVC various cytotoxic T-lymphocyte, helper T-lymphocyte, and B-cell epitopes with the highest affinity for the respective HLA alleles were assembled and joined by linkers. Results: The computational data suggest that the MEVC is nontoxic, nonallergenic and thermostable and elicit both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Subsequently, the biological activity of MEVC was assessed by bioinformatic tools using the interaction between the vaccine candidate and the innate immune system receptors TLR3 and TLR4. The epitopes of the construct were analyzed with that of the strains belonging to various clades including the emerging variants having multiple unique mutations in S protein. Conclusions: Due to the advantageous features, the MEVC can be tested in vitro for more practical validation and the study offers immense scope for developing a potential vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2 in view of the public health emergency associated with COVID-19 disease caused by SARS-CoV-2.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Rapid onset of ceftriaxone-induced cholelithiasis in an adult patient p. 31
Hani Abdelaziz, Nancy Cormier, Tania Levesque, Jean St-Yves, Muhanad Al Habash, Oscar Diaz, Marie-Pierre Haberer, Dariu Calugaroiu, Mohamed Nashed
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_11_21  
Ceftriaxone is a third-generation cephalosporin with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Here, we report a case of ceftriaxone-induced cholelithiasis in an adult patient after a short period of administering ceftriaxone. A 57-year-old female was admitted to our hospital for meningitis and treated empirically with ceftriaxone 2 g every 12 hours. Other medications given included vancomycin, ampicillin and acyclovir. Based on culture results and a sensitivity report, ceftriaxone was continued while other medications were discontinued on day three after admission. Her liver function test (LFT) demonstrated an elevation in hepatic transaminases, and alanine and aspartate transaminases peaked on the fifth day (339 and 153 IU/L, respectively). Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) confirmed the presence of uncomplicated cholelithiasis. Ceftriaxone was discontinued and switched to cefotaxime 2 g every four hours. Hepatic transaminases started declining after ceftriaxone discontinuation and dropped to normal levels on day nine. After the administration of cefotaxime on the 25th day, repeated US imaging revealed the persistence of biliary sludge. The patient was discharged in a good and stable clinical condition with follow-up planned at the outpatient clinic. When the concentration of ceftriaxone in the gallbladder exceeds the solubility of its calcium salt, precipitation occurs, forming a biliary sludge. Using the Naranjo Probability scale, the score was found to be 4, indicating a possible relationship between ceftriaxone and cholelithiasis. Multiple case reports of ceftriaxone-induced cholelithiasis have been documented previously, most of which focused on children or on the prolonged use of ceftriaxone. However, our case report highlights the development of cholelithiasis in adults after administering ceftriaxone for a short time.
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Treatment of hepatitis C in a case of pediatric B-cell acute leukemia p. 35
Nikita Jakhar, Akriti Gera, Richa Mittal, Sumit Mehndiratta, Shalimar , Amitabh Singh
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_1_21  
The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Pediatric patients with lymphoproliferative diseases has most commonly been reported with B cell Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Case studies have reported the requirement of dose reduction or suspension of chemotherapy in 80% of Pediatric ALL cases who are anti-HCV positive owing to hepatotoxicity. The standard of care anti HCV therapy in children aged 3-17 years had been peginterferon and ribavirin for 48 weeks. FDA approved pan-genotypic, anti- HCV regimen, sofosbuvir/velpatasvir [SOF/VEL], for the Pediatric population >6yrs of age or >17 kg body weight in March 2020. We herein report a case of an HCV infected Pediatric B cell ALL patient who was treated with SOF/VEL concomitantly with an intensive chemotherapy regimen. Child tolerated the full dose chemotherapy along with antivirals for 12 weeks and was in morphological remission with sustained virological response.
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A case of pacemaker associated Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis p. 38
Ujjwayini Ray, Soma Dutta, Aftab Khan
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_67_21  
The use of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) is associated with improved quality of life and decreased fatal outcomes in patients with cardiac dysfunctions. As with all foreign devices that are inserted or implanted in the body, CIED also carries the risk of device-related infections. Infections account for <2% of the complications associated with CIED, and only about 2% of these are secondary to a fungal pathogen. The first case of Aspergillus endocarditis secondary to a transvenous pacing lead was reported in the 1980s, and a limited number of cases have been documented in the literature since then. Aspergillus endocarditis is a highly fatal disease and establishing the diagnosis sufficiently early is challenging. We here report a case of Aspergillus endocarditis secondary to permanent pacemaker insertion which was successfully treated following the establishment of the diagnosis using imaging studies and galactomannan assay.
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PICTORIAL EDUCATION Top

Large crateriform molluscum on penis masquerading as keratoacanthoma p. 41
Subhasmita Baisya, Subhadeep Mallick, Devansi Sarawgi, Olympia Rudra
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_165_21  
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

False-positive human immunodeficiency virus reactivity in COVID patients: A word of caution p. 43
Smriti Srivastava, Parul Singh, Rajesh Malhotra, Purva Mathur
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_226_21  
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2008 Journal of Global Infectious Diseases | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th December, 2008