Journal of Global Infectious DiseasesOfficial Publishing of INDUSEM and OPUS 12 Foundation, Inc. Users online:73  
Print this pageEmail this pageSmall font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size     
Home About us Editors Ahead of Print Current Issue Archives Search Instructions Subscribe Advertise Login
 
Export selected to
Endnote
Reference Manager
Procite
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
April-June 2021
Volume 13 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 65-111

Online since Monday, May 31, 2021

Accessed 6,667 times.

PDF access policy
Journal allows immediate open access to content in HTML + PDF

EPub access policy
Full text in EPub is free except for the current issue. Access to the latest issue is reserved only for the paid subscribers.
View as eBookView issue as eBook
Access StatisticsIssue statistics
RSS FeedRSS
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to  Add to my list
EDITORIAL  

State of the globe: The frenzy of self-medication, cocktail regimens and everchanging guidelines on SARS-CoV-2 p. 65
Vivek Chauhan, Suman Thakur
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_114_21  
[HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta
ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Incidence of secondary bacterial infections following utilization of tocilizumab for the treatment of COVID-19 – A matched retrospective cohort study Highly accessed article p. 67
Joanna L Moore, Stephanie J Stroever, Patricia E Rondain, Robyn N Scatena
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_358_20  
Introduction: Immunosuppressive agents are theorized to target the cytokine storm syndrome in COVID-19. However, the downstream effects regarding susceptibilities to secondary infection risk remains unknown. This study seeks to determine risk differences for secondary infections among COVID-19 patients who did and did not receive tocilizumab. Methods: We conducted a matched retrospective cohort study from two large, acute care hospitals in Western Connecticut from March 1, to May 31, 2020. We collected variables using manual medical record abstraction. The primary exposure variable was any dose of tocilizumab. The primary outcome was any healthcare-associated bacterial or fungal infection as defined by the National Healthcare Safety Network. We performed a Kaplan–Meier analysis to assess the crude difference in cumulative probability of healthcare-associated infection (HAI) across exposure groups. We also performed a multivariable Cox regression analysis to determine the hazard ratio for HAI by exposure group while controlling for potential confounders. Results: The Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated no difference in the cumulative probability of HAI across groups. The adjusted hazard of HAI for patients given tocilizumab was 0.85 times that of patients not given tocilizumab (95% confidence interval = 0.29, 2.52, P = 0.780) after controlling for relevant confounders. Conclusions: Tocilizumab did not increase the incidence of secondary infection among COVID-19 patients. Larger, randomized trials should evaluate infection as a secondary outcome to validate this finding.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Gaps in the care cascade among human immunodeficiency virus-exposed infants born in 2017 in Mashonaland East Province of Zimbabwe p. 72
Ndaimani Augustine, Owiti Philip, Ajay M V Kumar, Zizhou Simukai, Mugurungi Owen, Mugauri Hamufare Dumisani, Komtenza Brian
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_171_19  
Introduction: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) is a key strategy for ending the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. Most studies have focused on the mothers' side of the PMTCT cascade or the rate of vertical HIV transmission. Information on child-focused cascade is limited. We aimed to evaluate HIV testing, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis uptake and associated factors among HIV-exposed infants (HEIs) born in 2017. Methods: This was a record-based descriptive study in Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe. We analyzed routinely collected program data abstracted from electronic and paper-based HEI registers. Uptakes were calculated as proportions while associations were measured using adjusted risk ratios (log-binomial regression). Results: Of 1028 HEIs, 1015 (98.7%) were commenced on nevirapine prophylaxis, while 915 (89.0%) were commenced on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. A total of 880 (85.0%) HEIs were tested for HIV by 6 weeks and 445 (44.4%) by 9 months. Overall, 40 (3.9%) were found to be HIV positive, and of them, 34 (85.0%) commenced on ART. Secondary and tertiary health facilities, being born through nonvaginal delivery, and certain districts were significantly associated with not commencing cotrimoxazole prophylaxis or getting tested for HIV. One district was associated with less risk of not having an HIV test by 9 months. Conclusions: While nevirapine, cotrimoxazole, and ART uptake were high among the HEIs, HIV testing by 9 months was suboptimal. The vertical HIV transmission rate was 3.9%. There is a need to strengthen HIV testing and antiretroviral and cotrimoxazole prophylaxes, especially at high-level facilities and certain districts.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Impact of an interventional program on improving compliance of hand hygiene and reducing hospital-acquired infection in the critical care unit p. 80
Jeneth Gutierrez, Aladeen Alloubani, Mohammad Alzaatreh, Mohammad Mari, Laila Akhu-Zaheya
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_147_20  
Introduction: This study aimed to determine the effect of a hand hygiene (HH) and awareness campaign on knowledge and compliance with HH practices among health-care workers working staff in the main intensive care units and also to evaluate the rates of hospital-acquired infection (HAI) before and after the intervention. Methods: A prospective, interventional, pre–post design was utilized and carried out in three phases: the first stage was a 1-month preintervention stage to develop the foundation of the compliance rate of handwashing; the second stage was the interventional handwashing campaign; the third stage was the postintervention stage to improve the compliance rate of handwashing. Two instruments were used in this study: the HH Knowledge Questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization to assess HH knowledge and the Handwashing Questionnaire developed to evaluate HH washing. Results: HH knowledge has been increased from preintervention (M = 11.84, standard deviation [SD] = 2.41) to postintervention (M = 18.80, SD = 2.93), and the effective compliance with HH practice was as low as 49% in June 2017 to 75% in February 2018. In addition, the HAI rate was dropped from 13.2% in June 2017 to 9% in February 2018. An inverse association was recognized between HH compliance and HAI rates. Conclusions: These results recommend that reasonable approaches can decrease the HAI rate of intensive care units. A nationwide handwashing interventional program can be employed in all hospitals.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Long turnaround times in viral load monitoring of people living with HIV in resource-limited settings p. 85
Fredrick Mbiva, Hannock Tweya, Srinath Satyanarayana, Kudakwashe Takarinda, Collins Timire, Janet Dzangare, Phoebe Nzombe, Tsitsi M Apollo, Bekezela Khabo, Exevia Mazarura
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_172_19  
Introduction: Routine viral load (VL) testing is fraught with challenges in resource-limited settings which lead to longer turnaround times for the return of VL results. We assessed the turnaround times for VL testing and factors associated with long turnaround (>30 days) in Marondera, Zimbabwe, between January and September 2018. Methods: This was an analytical study of routine program data. Data were extracted from electronic records and paper-based reports at two laboratories and at antiretroviral therapy (ART) facilities. The unit of analysis was the VL sample. Duration (in days) between sample collection and sample testing (pre-test turnaround time), duration between sample testing and receipt of VL result at ART the site (post-test turnaround time), and duration between sample collection and receipt of result at the ART site (overall turnaround time) were calculated. Days on which the VL testing machine was not functional, and workload (number of tests done per month) were used to assess associations. We used binomial log models to assess the factors associated with longer turnaround time. Results: A total of 3348 samples were received at the two VL testing laboratories, and 3313 were tested, of these, 1111 were analyzed for overall turnaround time. Pre-test, post-test, and overall turnaround times were 22 days (interquartile range (IQR): 11–41), 51 days (IQR: 30–89), and 67 days (IQR: 46–100), respectively. Laboratory workload (relative risk [RR]: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–1.14) and machine break down (RR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.14–1.17) were associated with long turnaround time. Conclusions: Routine VL turnaround time was long. Decentralizing VL testing and enhancing laboratory capacity may help shorten the turnaround time.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta
MICROBIOLOGY REPORT Top

Evaluation of COVID-19 antigen fluorescence immunoassay test for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 p. 91
Vandana Vijayeta Kiro, Ankesh Gupta, Parul Singh, Neha Sharad, Surbhi Khurana, Prakash S, Lalit Dar, Rajesh Malhotra, Naveet Wig, Arvind Kumar, Anjan Trikha, Purva Mathur
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_316_20  
Introduction: Tests detecting SARS-CoV-2-specific antigen have recently been developed, and many of them are now commercially available. However, the real-world performance of these assays is uncertain; therefore, their validation is important. In this study, we have evaluated the performance of STANDARD F COVID-19 antigen fluorescence immunoassay (FIA) kit. Methods: Nasopharyngeal samples collected from patients were subjected to the test as per manufacturer's instructions. The performance of the kit was compared with the gold standard real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: A total of 354 patients were tested with STANDARD F COVID-19 antigen FIA test kit. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of this test were found to be 38%, 99%, 96.2%, and 72%, respectively, with a diagnostic accuracy of 75.7%. Conclusion: STANDARD F COVID-19 antigen FIA showed high specificity and positive predictive value but low sensitivity and negative predictive value.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta
CASE REPORTS Top

Palate tuberculosis with paradoxical lymphadenitis p. 94
Ines Kechaou, Rym Abida, Mohamed Salah Hamdi, Lamia Ben Hassine
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_266_20  
Oral cavity involvement in tuberculosis (TB), particularly palatine, is extremely rare and mostly described in case reports. Management of these cases usually responds to classic antitubercular therapy. Some serious complications such as paradoxical reactions (PRs) may however occur, making it more challenging for physicians to treat and to manage. We present a case of a 30-year-old female patient with a history of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus who presented a bifocal form of TB involving the palate and the cervical lymph nodes. Follow-up after 2 months of proper antitubercular treatment revealed a PR of the lymph nodes contrasting with a favorable outcome of the oral lesions. It seems useful to raise all clinicians' awareness to suspect TB when they deal with chronic drug-resistant oral erosions and to keep in mind the diagnosis of PR when there is a worsening of one lesion and a favorable outcome of another.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

A rare bug and recurrent bleed p. 97
Yashendu Sarda, Vishak K Acharya, Deepthi Sharma, GV Chaithra, Madhav M Kamath, Santosh P V Rai
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_137_20  
Isolated pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare entity. Its clinical features and radiological findings are nonspecific, making early diagnosis difficult for clinicians. We report a case of 40-year-old nonsmoker, immunocompetent male without an underlying structural lung disease who presented to us with recurrent hemoptysis and was diagnosed to have Actinomycosis after multiple readmissions.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

A rare case of Salmonella meningitis and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis p. 100
Nimisha S Dange, Vishal Sawant, Lona Dash, Alpana Santosh Kondekar
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_224_20  
Enteric fever is a common infectious disease of the tropical world. Common age group involved is children aged between 5 and 10 years. In addition to diarrhea, it may lead to extraintestinal infections including aseptic meningitis, hepatitis, cholecystitis, acute abdomen, intestinal perforation, pneumonia, psychosis, and ataxia. Hematologic complications leading to hemophagocytosis have a prevalence of < 1%. Salmonella meningitis has an incidence of 6% with poor prognosis neurological sequelae. We report a rare case of enteric fever that presented with hemophagocytic syndrome and S. meningitis. Response to third-generation cephalosporins is dramatic, eventually giving good prognosis.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Primary bacterial peritonitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae p. 103
Sofia Maraki, Panagiotis Moraitis, Sophia Barbagadakis, Ioannis Vlachakis
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_197_20  
Primary peritonitis is a rare infection in healthy children, mainly affecting patients with underlying medical disorders. We report a case of primary pneumococcal peritonitis in an immunocompetent 3-year-old boy. Diagnosis was made at laparotomy and cultures of the intra-abdominal pus yielded Streptococcus pneumoniae. Timely antibiotic treatment administered resulted in complete resolution of the infection.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Mucosal papillary hyperplasia in gallbladder: A clue for infectious etiology in HIV patients p. 105
Juhi Devendra Mahadik, Ramya Prakash Masand, Shilpa Jain
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_214_20  
Gallbladder specimens are ditzel in surgical pathology and opportunistic diseases like cryptosporidiosis where they are easy to miss. We describe three cases of gallbladders with mucosal papillary hyperplasia with acute and chronic inflammation, all of which revealed cryptosporidiosis on complete histological evaluation. The patients were found to be HIV positive on further chart review. In the absence of clinical history, which is often the case with gallbladder specimens, the finding of mucosal papillary hyperplasia can be a reactive response to an infectious cause and can serve as a helpful clue to look for organisms with patience at higher magnification.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta
LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

The coruscating magnetic resonance imaging features of dumb rabies p. 108
Dinesh Chouksey, Pankaj Rathi, Kapil Telang, Ajoy K Sodani
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_362_20  
[HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Dengue encephalitis: A rare but dreaded complication of dengue fever p. 109
Shalendra Singh, Kiran Kalshetty, Rabi Narayan Hota, Nipun Gupta, Kaminder Bir Kaur
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_357_20  
[HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Immune thrombocytopenia: A rare complication of rabies vaccine p. 110
Sachin Bansal, Rahul Bhargava, Ayush Singh, Meet Kumar, Santosh Raut Kurmi, Prabhat Agrawal
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_312_20  
[HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta
  Addresses 
  My Preferences 


JGID
What's new
Forthcoming Symposia
Submit articles
Email alerts
Join us
Most popular articles
Recommend this journal
Sitemap | What's New | Feedback | Copyright and Disclaimer | Contact Us
2008 Journal of Global Infectious Diseases | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th December, 2008