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   2010| January-April  | Volume 2 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 20, 2010

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Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections
Rajiv Saini, Santosh Saini, Sugandha Sharma
January-April 2010, 2(1):57-62
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.59252  PMID:20300419
Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.
  11,323 252 4
Revisiting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections
Abdelkarim Waness
January-April 2010, 2(1):49-56
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.59251  PMID:20300418
Within less than 50 years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) made a tremendous impact worldwide. It is not limited to medical facilities and healthcare institutions anymore. Indeed since two decades, cases of MRSA infections arising from the community among apparently healthy individuals are increasing. In this paper, I will present a case of community-associated MRSA sepsis followed by a comprehensive review about the history, pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical presentations, diagnostic modalities, therapeutic options, contributing factors, growing cost and other pertinent elements of this newly evolving epidemic of MRSA infections.
  7,239 386 3
Helicobacter pylori and Hepatitis C virus coinfection in Egyptian patients
Samir El-Masry, Mohamed El-Shahat, Gamal Badra, Mohamed F Aboel-Nour, Mahmoud Lotfy
January-April 2010, 2(1):4-9
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.59244  PMID:20300411
Introduction: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of end-stage liver disease worldwide. It has been shown that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) plays an important role in chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies, and its eradication has been advocated. The association between H. pylori infection and liver cirrhosis in patients with hepatitis C virus has been documented in different parts of the world; nevertheless, no conclusive data is available in Egypt. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the status of H. pylori infection was sought in 90 patients with chronic HCV infection and in 66 HCV-free healthy controls. Results: The study showed that the H. pylori positivity was increased significantly (P = 0.03) in the HCV-infected patients when compared to that in healthy controls, where H. pylori infection was found in 50 (55.6%) out of 90 of the HCV-infected patients versus 26 (39.4%) out of 66 of the healthy controls. In HCV-infected patients, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was increased significantly (P = 0.04) from chronic active hepatitis to cirrhosis. H. pylori infection was present in 6/18 (33.3%), 10/21 (47.6%), 16/27 (59.3%), 18/24 (75.0%) patients with chronic active hepatitis, Child-Pugh score A, Child-Pugh score B and Child-Pugh score C, respectively. More importantly, the prevalence of H. pylori infection in HCV-infected patients was increased very significantly (P = 0.003) with increasing Meld (model for end-stage liver disease) score. The prevalence of H. pylori was documented in 9/28 (32.1%) patients with Meld score ≤10 and in 41/62 (66.1%) patients with Meld score >10. Conclusion: It may be stated that our results collectively reflect a remarkable increase in H. pylori prevalence with advancing hepatic lesions, and the eradication treatment may prove beneficial in those patients with chronic hepatitis C.
  5,932 246 10
Reporting emerging resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae from India
Kiran Chawla, Bimala Gurung, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay, Indira Bairy
January-April 2010, 2(1):10-14
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.59245  PMID:20300412
Background: There are reports of emergence of resistant strains of S. pneumoniae showing resistance to penicillin from all over the world, and now, resistance to multiple drugs (multidrug-resistant strains) has been added to it. However, scanty reports are available so far from India, depicting such resistance. Aims: The aim of the present study is to look for the prevalence of penicillin-resistant pneumococci and also the multidrug-resistant strains among S. pneumoniae, isolated from respiratory specimens, in the coastal part of South India. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2008 to December 2008, in our tertiary care center. Fifty pathogenic clinical isolates were collected from patients suffering from lower respiratory tract infections. Materials and Methods: Penicillin resistance was screened by 1 µg oxacillin disk on Muller-Hinton blood agar followed by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) detection by the agar dilution method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Antibiotic susceptibility for other antibiotics was carried out by the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method followed by an E-test with HiComb test strips from Hi-media. Results: Out of 50 isolates, 4% (95% Confidence Interval - 1.4, 9.4) showed total resistance to penicillin, whereas, 10% (95% CI; 1.6, 18.3) showed intermediate resistance. These penicillin-resistant pneumococci (4%) were also found to be multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. Maximum resistance was observed for cotrimoxazole and tetracycline (24% each with 95% CI; 12.2, 35.8) followed by erythromycin and ciprofloxacin (14% each with 95%CI; 4.4, 23.6). Conclusions : Increasing emergence of the resistant strains of S. pneumoniae in the community set up requires continuous monitoring and a restricted use of antibiotics to keep a check on its resistance pattern, for an effective treatment plan.
  5,615 264 4
Hepatitis B vaccination status and needlestick injuries among healthcare workers in Syria
Rabi Yacoub, Radwan Al Ali, Ghamez Moukeh, Ayham Lahdo, Yaser Mouhammad, Mahmood Nasser
January-April 2010, 2(1):28-34
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.59247  PMID:20300414
Background: Although a majority of countries in the Middle East show intermediate or high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, which clearly poses a serious public health problem in the region, the situation in the Republic of Syria remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the hepatitis B vaccination status, to assess the number of vaccinations administered, and to estimate the annual incidence of needlestick injuries (NSIs) among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Aleppo University hospitals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional design with a survey questionnaire was used for exploring details of NSIs during 2008, hepatitis B vaccination status, and HBV infection among a random stratified sample of HCWs in three tertiary hospitals in Aleppo (n= 321). Results: Two hundred and forty-six (76.6%) HCWs had sustained at least one NSI during 2008. Nine (2.8%) had HBV chronic infection and 75 HCWs (23.4%) were never vaccinated. Anesthesiology technicians had the greatest exposure risk when compared to office workers [OR=16,95% CI (2.55-100), P<0.01], doctors [OR=10,95% CI (2.1 47.57), P < 0.01], and nurses [OR = 6.75,95% CI (1.56-29.03), P = 0.01]. HCWs under 25 and between the age of 25 and 35 years were at increased risk for NSI when compared to HCWs older than 45 years [OR = 3.12,95% CI (1.19-8.19), P = 0.02] and [OR = 3.05,95% CI (1.42-6.57), P < 0.01], respectively. Conclusion: HCWs at Aleppo University hospitals are frequently exposed to blood-borne infections. Precautions and protection from NSIs are important in preventing infection of HCWs. Education about the transmission of blood-borne infections, vaccination, and post-exposure prophylaxis must be implemented and strictly monitored.
  5,268 164 3
Looking at complicating non-biological issues in women with HIV
Chaturaka Rodrigo, Senaka Rajapakse
January-April 2010, 2(1):15-27
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.59246  PMID:20300413
Introduction: The increasing number of women acquiring Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has resulted in a 'feminization' of the epidemic. In this article we are reviewing whether females are disadvantaged in the epidemic, due to factors independent of the biological differences in sexes. Materials and Methods: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles with key words 'Women', 'Gender,' and 'HIV' in any field. The search was restricted to articles published in English within the last 10 years (1999-2009). Data were coded independently by two reviewers from 94 selected sources. The coded data were categorized under five commonly encountered concepts; violence, poverty, gender norms, prevention-/treatment-related issues, and Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Treatment (HAART). Results: The link between inter-partner violence (IPV) and HIV risk for women is observed by many authors. In assessing the link between poverty and HIV, indicators such as food insufficiency and income inequality may be better indicators compared to wealth itself. Although women are disadvantaged with male-dominated gender norms, evidence suggests that the traditional norms are changing in many societies. A positive association between living in urban communities, education, and better HIV knowledge has been observed in females, although it is not always synonymous with reduced risk behavior. Conclusions: Women are still disadvantaged in many HIV-related issues such as poverty, violence, and gender norms. At least in Africa, there is evidence of a positive change in spheres of education and gender norms. However, the situation in Asia is largely unexplored.
  4,159 113 2
Recommendations for control of East African sleeping sickness in Uganda
Simon Kotlyar
January-April 2010, 2(1):43-48
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.59250  PMID:20300417
East African sleeping sickness, caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, is prominent in Uganda and poses a serious public health challenge in the region. This publication attempts to provide key components for designing a strategy for a nationwide initiative to provide insecticide-treatment of the animal reservoir to control T. b. rhodesiense. The contents of this article will focus on insecticide-based vector control strategies, monitoring and evaluation framework, and knowledge gaps required for future initiatives.
  3,276 83 -
Rural epidemiology of HIV positive tribal patients from Chhattisgarh in India
Harminder Singh, Naveen Dulhani, Nel Kumar Bithika, Pawan Tiwari, VKS Chauhan, Prabhakar Singh
January-April 2010, 2(1):39-42
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.59249  PMID:20300416
Objective: The primary objective was to study the epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive tribal patients, and the secondary objective was to study the associated comorbidities in a tertiary care hospital in the tribal (Bastar) region of Chhattisgarh, India, between December 2006 and November 2008, and their relation to CD4 counts. Materials and Methods : In this study 90 tribal HIV positive subjects were enrolled. Information on demographics, that is, weight, height, age, educational status, sex, clinical finding, and laboratory parameters (CD4 counts) were noted. Results: Among 90 HIV patients, 54 (60%) were males and 36 (40%) were females. Among these, most patients, 37 (41.1%), were in the age group of 30 to 39 years. Among these patients, 79.56% belonged to the lower socioeconomic status, whereas, only 1.45% were from a high socioeconomic status. The largest group was made up of drivers (32.2%), with the second largest group being housewives (27.7%) and laborers (17.7%), respectively. A majority of the patients had a low education, 35.5% were educated only up to the fifth standard and 31.8% up to high school, while 18.8% were illiterate. The predominant mode of transmission was heterosexual contact (78.8%), only one patient (1.1%) was infected through transfusion of infected blood, five (5.5%) patients acquired infection via vertical (mother to child) transmission, and in 13 patients the transmission history was not clear. Conclusion: There was a high frequency of behavioral risk factors, together with unawareness, and very little health infrastructure, thus creating an impending risk for the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).
  3,042 130 -
State of the globe: Helicobacter pylori and Hepatitis C together hamper health
January-April 2010, 2(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.59243  PMID:20300410
  2,859 208 -
Cryptococcal osteomyelitis in the ribs
Somika Sethi
January-April 2010, 2(1):63-64
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.59253  PMID:20300420
Isolated cryptococcal osteomyelitis, in an immunocompetent, is rare and only a few cases have been reported in literature. We present the case of a 30-year-old man presented with pain on the left side of chest with fever and gradually increasing swelling in left lateral lower aspect of chest. Investigation revealed a lytic lesion in the anterior end of left 6 th rib with normal CD4 count. He was tested negative for HIV antigen. Excision of the sixth rib, morphologically revealed cryptococcal osteomyelitis and the patient was given anti-fungal treatment for six months.
  2,671 87 3
Trigeminal neuralgia in an HIV patient
Mohammad A Hashmi, Gautam Guha, Bibhuti Saha
January-April 2010, 2(1):65-66
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.59254  PMID:20300421
Trigeminal neuralgia is a painful condition affecting face. Its commonest cause is the tortuous vessels in prepontine cistern. There are other causes also, like brainstem lesions and mass lesions, as well as inflammatory causes. We present a case of an HIV patient with marked involvement of trigeminal nerves, which is a unique finding in immunocompromised patients.
  2,497 86 -
Enterococcal cerebellopontine angle abscess in a 12-year-old female
Alka Sonavane, Vasant Baradkar, Simit Kumar
January-April 2010, 2(1):67-69
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.59255  PMID:20300422
Despite advances in imaging and antibiotic treatment, brain abscess is still encountered occasionally. Various aerobic and anaerobic bacteria have been reported as causative agents of brain abscess but only a few cases of enterococcal brain abscesses have been reported. Here we report a case of brain abscess in a 12-year-old female patient, who presented with a history of fever, chills, headache, convulsions since seven days and history of altered sensorium and aphasia since the last two days . The patient had chronic suppurative otitis media of both ears following trauma and presented with ear discharge. The diagnosis of brain abscess was done by computerized tomography scan and the pus was aspirated by left suboccipital burr hole operation. Enterococcus species was cultured from the aspirated pus sample. The patient responded to surgical drainage and antibiotic treatment.
  2,470 97 -
Tubercular infection presenting as sinus over ankle joint after knee replacement surgery
Sanjeev Uppal, Ramneesh Garg
January-April 2010, 2(1):71-72
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.59257  PMID:20300424
  2,423 56 1
A novel tool for classification of epidemiological data of vector-borne diseases
Sree Hari Rao Vadrevu, Suryanarayana U Murty
January-April 2010, 2(1):35-38
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.59248  PMID:20300415
In this article we present a novel tool that renders efficient classification of epidemiological data of vector-borne diseases. This algorithm has been applied on the data of the Filariasis disease and the results are compared with the well-known k-nearest neighbor algorithm.
  2,338 107 -
Acute myocardial infarction in a hospital cohort of malaria
Karun Jain, M Chakrapani
January-April 2010, 2(1):72-73
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.59258  PMID:20300425
  2,194 71 -
Pharyngeal histoplasmosis presenting as a tumor mass in an immunocompetent host
Fouzia Siraj, Varsha Manucha
January-April 2010, 2(1):70-71
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.59256  PMID:20300423
  2,108 65 2
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2008 Journal of Global Infectious Diseases | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th December, 2008