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   2013| July-September  | Volume 5 | Issue 3  
    Online since August 23, 2013

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Clinical outcome of novel H1N1 (Swine Flu)-infected patients during 2009 pandemic at tertiary referral hospital in western India
Ketan K Patel, Atul K Patel, Parthiv M Mehta, Richa P Amin, Kunal P Patel, Prakash C Chuhan, Eknath Naik, Kamlesh R Patel
July-September 2013, 5(3):93-97
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.116868  PMID:24049362
Background: The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in Gujarat, India, was reported in August 2009. Oseltamivir was used for treatment of pandemic influenza in India. We discuss the clinical characteristics and outcome of the hospitalized patients with H1N1 infection during 2009 pandemic influenza season. Materials and Methods: Hospitalized patient with laboratory-confirmed H1N1 flu during August 2009 to February 2010 were included in this retrospective study. Data were collected from hospital ICU charts. Patients discharged from hospital were considered cured from swine flu. Data analysis was performed using CDC software EPI Info v3.5.3. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: A total of 63 patients were included in the study, of them 41 (65%) males and 22 (35%) females. Median age was 34 (3-69) years and median duration of symptoms before hospitalization was 5 (2-20) days. Common presenting symptoms include fever 58 (92.06%), cough 58 (92.06%), breathlessness 38 (60.31%), common cold 14 (22.22%), vomiting 12 (19.04%), weakness 9 (14.28%), throat pain 7 (11.11%), body ache 5 (7.93%), and chest pain 4 (6.34%). Co-morbidities were seen in 13 (20.63%) patients. Steroids were used in 39 (61.90%) patients, and ventilatory support was required in 17 (26.98%) patients. On presentation chest x-ray was normal in 20 (31.74%) patients, while pulmonary opacities were seen in 43 (68.26%) patients. Forty-seven (74.60%) patients were cured and discharged from hospital, 14 (22.22%) patients died, and 2 (3.17%) patients were shifted to other hospital. Ventilatory requirement, pneumonia, and co-morbidities were the independent predictors of mortality, while age, sex, and steroid use were not associated with increased mortality. Conclusion: 2009 pandemic influenza A had the same clinical features as seasonal influenza except vomiting. Mortality rate was high in 2009 H1N1-infected patients with pneumonia, co-morbid conditions, and patients who required ventilatory support.
  5 4,479 63
HIV-2 infection: Where are we today?
Nayana A Ingole, Purva P Sarkate, Supriya M Paranjpe, Sameer D Shinde, Sujata S Lall, Preeti R Mehta
July-September 2013, 5(3):110-113
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.116872  PMID:24049365
Context: The choice of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-2 differs from that for HIV-1, underscoring the importance of differentiating between the two. Aims: The current study was planned to find out the prevalence of HIV-2 infection at our center and to find out the utility of the current diagnostic algorithm in identifying the type of HIV infection. Setting and Design: Retrospective analysis in a tertiary care teaching institute over a period of three years. Materials and Methods: All patients diagnosed as HIV infected using NACO/WHO HIV testing strategy III were included in the study. They were classified as HIV-1 infected, HIV-2 infected and HIV-1 and HIV-2 co-infected based on their test results. For discordant samples, immunoblotting result from National Reference Laboratory was considered as final. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparison between HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1+2 positive groups for age, gender, route of transmission was made using chi squared test. P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Of the total of 66,708 patients tested, 5,238 (7.9%) were positive for HIV antibodies. 7.62%, 0.14%, 0.08% and 0.004% were HIV-1, HIV-2, HIV-1 and HIV-2 co-infected and HIV type indeterminate (HIV-1 Indeterminate, 2+) respectively. The current algorithm could not differentiate between the types of HIV infection (as HIV-1 or HIV-2) in 63 (1.2%) cases. Conclusion: In areas like the Indian subcontinent, where epidemic of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections are ongoing, it is important to modify the current diagnostic algorithms to diagnose and confirm HIV-2 infections.
  4 5,266 113
Persistent pediatric gastro-intestinal myiasis: A case report of fly larval infestation with musca domestica with review of literature
Venkataramana Kandi, Sandeep Kumar Lal, Akhila , Shruthi , K Sandhya, Harender Simar, Mispah Pranuthi, Moses Vinay Kumar, Kalaskar Anand, Sanjeev D Rao
July-September 2013, 5(3):114-117
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.116874  PMID:24049366
The occurrence of dipterous fly larvae in human is termed as human myiasis. Human myiasis can be classified based on clinical condition it causes like cutaneous myiasis, ocular myiasis, urogenital myiasis and intestinal myiasis. Based on the need for a particular host, myiasis can be divided as specific myiasis, semi-specific myiasis. Accidental myiasis results when the fly larvae are deposited/ingested by human resulting in infestation, which is also called as pseudomyiasis. Fly larvae may be present on the dead and decaying organic matter and domestic animals like dog and cats which are naturally infested with fly larvae and can be source for infection in children. Very few cases have been retrieved from literature on the occurrence of intestinal myiasis in children throughout the world. We report a case of two siblings in the same family infested with dipterous fly larvae.
  2 6,504 52
Leptospirosis coexistent with dengue fever: A diagnostic dilemma
Baijayantimala Mishra, Lipika Singhal, Sunil Sethi, Radha K Ratho
July-September 2013, 5(3):121-122
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.116878  PMID:24049369
  2 2,443 54
Case report of Aspergillus osteomyelitis of the ribs in an immunocompetent patient
Shilpa Reynal D'sa, Suvir Singh, Sowmya Satyendra, Prasad Mathews
July-September 2013, 5(3):118-120
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.116875  PMID:24049367
Aspergillus is a saprophytic fungus which is universally found in the environment. Most people breathe in the spores of Aspergillus every day without development of disease. It commonly affects immunocompromised hosts. There are only few reported cases in an immunocompetent host. It most commonly affects the respiratory system, causing superficial or invasive disease. It also affects the skin, brain and eye in severely immunocompromised patients. Aspergillosis of the bone is extremely rare. Amongst all the reported cases of invasive aspergillosis the incidence of osteomyelitis is less than three percent. In these cases commonly of the spine is reported. We present a case of Aspergillus osteomyelitis of the ribs in an immunocompetent host.
  1 3,827 20
State of the globe: The H1N1 threat continues to loom the planet
Chirag V Vasa
July-September 2013, 5(3):91-92
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.116867  PMID:24049361
  1 2,504 31
Parvovirus B19 infection in pediatric patients with hematological disorders
Lipika Singhal, Baijayantimala Mishra, Amita Trehan, Neelam Varma, RK Marwaha, Radha Kant Ratho
July-September 2013, 5(3):124-124
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.116881  PMID:24049371
  1 2,189 34
Clinical manifestations and prognostic factor of iliopsoas abscess
Nobuhiro Asai, Yoshihiro Ohkuni, Ikuo Yamazaki, Yasutaka Kawamura, Norihiro Kaneko, Masahiro Aoshima
July-September 2013, 5(3):98-103
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.116869  PMID:24049363
Introduction: Iliopsoas abscess (IPA) is a collection of pus in the iliopsoas compartment, which is considered rare in Japan. However, the number of patients with IPA has recently increased among the elderly or compromised hosts. Subjects and Methods: This retrospective study aims to examine the clinical pictures, pathological findings, and the prognostic factor of IPA. We analyzed all patients with IPA who were admitted to our hospital from April 2006 to July 2011. Patients' characteristics, treatment, clinical outcome, radiological findings, bacteria isolated, and comorbidities were evaluated. The comorbidities were evaluated by the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). We compared the survival and non-survival groups to assess the prognostic factors of IPA. Results: A total of 33 patients were enrolled in this study, which included 14 males and 19 females. The mean age of the patients was 71.5 years (range 32-92 years). The most common underlying disease was spinal disease (16 of 33, 48.5%). Twenty-nine patients (87.9%) were cured and four patients (12.1%) died. While 12 patients (36.4%) were initially treated conservatively with antibiotics alone, percutaneous drainage was performed initially in 19 patients (57.6%). Two patients (6%) directly underwent exploratory surgery and open drainage. In terms of patients' characteristics, there were no significant differences in either group. The score of CCI in non-survivors was higher than that in survivors (1.38 vs. 5.5, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The epidemiology of IPA is quite different from what it used to be. CCI appears to be useful in evaluating the patients' prognosis with IPA.
  1 4,177 66
Epidemiological investigation on subcutaneous nodule containing a live worm suspected to be Dirofilaria repens infection in a woman from rural Kerala, India
Pallipurathu Reghunathan Nair Sreelakshmi, Alexander Jacob, Varghese Sincy, Chakravarthi Ajith, Ravindran Reghu, Thekkumkara Surendran Nair Anish
July-September 2013, 5(3):122-123
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.116880  PMID:24049370
  - 2,186 25
Serological evaluation of leptospirosis: A report from western India
Dnyaneshwari P Ghadage, Vrishali A Muley, Arvind V Bhore
July-September 2013, 5(3):121-121
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.116877  PMID:24049368
  - 2,110 30
Assessment of quality of life in a cohort of newly diagnosed patients on haart regimen, in resource restricted tribal region of chhattisgarh, India: A prospective study
Harminder Singh, Kamalpreet Kaur, Navin Dulhani, Akash Bansal, Bithika N Kumar, Vinod Kumar Singh Chouhan
July-September 2013, 5(3):104-109
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.116870  PMID:24049364
Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens have resulted in the systemic/clinical healing for human immune deficiency virus-infected patients but the consequence of antiretroviral therapy on the whole quality of life has become a major concern. The current study correlates the relationship of quality of life with successful highly active antiretroviral therapy. Aim : To determine the health-related quality of life in human immune deficiency virus-infected patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy regimen in tribal region of Chhattisgarh. Design: An open label prospective study. Materials and Methods: Health-related quality of life was assessed using a standardized questionnaire, the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36. Physical health summary scores and mental health summary scores were compared of pre-Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (at baseline) and post 12 months of therapy. Results: The increase in CD4 cell counts was extremely significant (P < 0.0001). The Physical Composite Summary (P value = 0.0003) improved significantly, whereas the Mental Composite Summary (with a baseline value of 40.7), post 12 months, was calculated as 42.8 (P value = 0.2371) and was statistically not significant. Conclusion: Efficacy measurement is the key ingredient of highly active anti-retroviral therapy, which must also include assessment of health-related quality of life to maximize the holistic approach towards disease.
  - 3,556 35
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2008 Journal of Global Infectious Diseases | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th December, 2008