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   2016| January-March  | Volume 8 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 11, 2016

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The emergence of zika virus as a global health security threat: A review and a consensus statement of the INDUSEM Joint working Group (JWG)
Veronica Sikka, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Raaj K Popli, Sagar C Galwankar, Dhanashree Kelkar, Stanley G Sawicki, Stanislaw P Stawicki, Thomas J Papadimos
January-March 2016, 8(1):3-15
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.176140  PMID:27013839
The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.
  26,925 226 43
Diagnostic accuracy of xpert test in tuberculosis detection: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Ravdeep Kaur, Kavita Kachroo, Jitendar Kumar Sharma, Satyanarayana Murthy Vatturi, Amit Dang
January-March 2016, 8(1):32-40
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.176143  PMID:27013842
Background: World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and detection of rifampicin resistance. This systematic review was done to know about the diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Scopus, Science Direct and Google Scholar for relevant studies for studies published between 2010 and December 2014. Studies given in the systematic reviews were accessed separately and used for analysis. Selection of studies, data extraction and assessment of quality of included studies was performed independently by two reviewers. Studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF assay among adult or predominantly adult patients (≥14 years), presumed to have pulmonary TB with or without HIV infection were included in the review. Also, studies that had assessed the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF assay using sputum and other respiratory specimens were included. Results: The included studies had a low risk of any form of bias, showing that findings are of high scientific validity and credibility. Quantitative analysis of 37 included studies shows that Xpert MTB/RIF is an accurate diagnostic test for TB and detection of rifampicin resistance. Conclusion: Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a robust, sensitive and specific test for accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis as compared to conventional tests like culture and microscopic examination.
  8,618 89 11
Laboratory detection and clinical implication of oxacillinase-48 like carbapenemase: The hidden threat
Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Shalini Anandan, Balaji Veeraraghavan
January-March 2016, 8(1):41-50
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.176149  PMID:27013843
Carbapenemase producing Gram-negative pathogen is of great concern for physician. The challenging aspects are treatment option and infection control. Monitoring of respective carbapenemase resistance mechanism is necessary to prevent the outbreaks. Currently, the rapid emergence of oxacillinase (OXA-48) like is alarming. Increasing frequency of OXA-48 is seen than the classical carbapenemase (KPC, NDM, IMP, and VIM) across the world. The blaOXA-48 gene is commonly identified in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The transferrable plasmid of OXA-48 is associated with rapid spread and inter-species dissemination. In general, OXA-48-like enzymes weakly hydrolyzes both carbapenem and broad spectrum cephalosporins. Except OXA-163, which effectively hydrolyze cephalosporin. This poor hydrolytic profile obscures the detection of OXA-48-like. It may go undetected in routine diagnosis and complicates the treatment option. Co-production of OXA-48-like with CTX-M-15 and other carbapenemase (NDM, VIM) leads to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains.
  7,547 186 33
Molecular characterization of virulence genes in vancomycin-resistant and vancomycin-sensitive enterococci
Priyanka Paul Biswas, Sangeeta Dey, Aninda Sen, Luna Adhikari
January-March 2016, 8(1):16-24
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.176141  PMID:27013840
Background: The aim of this study was to find out the correlation between presence of virulence (gelatinase [gel E], enterococcal surface protein [esp], cytolysin A [cyl A], hyaluronidase [hyl], and aggregation substance [asa1]) and vancomycin-resistant genes (van A and van B) in enterococci, with their phenotypic expression. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 isolates (250 each clinical and fecal) were processed. Enterococci were isolated from various clinical samples and from fecal specimens of colonized patients. Various virulence determinants namely asa1, esp, hyl, gel E, and cyl were detected by phenotypic methods. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin was determined by agar dilution method. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of virulence and van genes. Results: Out of all the samples processed, 12.0% (60/500) isolates carried van A or van B genes as confirmed by MIC test and PCR methods. Genes responsible for virulence were detected by multiplex PCR and at least one of the five was detected in all the clinical vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and vancomycin-sensitive enterococci (VSE). gel E, esp, and hyl genes were found to be significantly higher in clinical VRE. Of the fecal isolates, presence of gel E, esp, and asa1 was significantly higher in VRE as compared to VSE. The presence of hyl gene in the clinical VRE was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.043) as against the fecal VRE. Correlation between the presence of virulence genes and their expression as detected by phenotypic tests showed that while biofilm production was seen in 61.1% (22/36) of clinical VRE, the corresponding genes, i.e., asa1 and esp were detected in 30.5% (11/36) and 27.8% (10/36) of strains only. Conclusion: Enterococcus faecium isolates were found to carry esp gene, a phenomenon that has been described previously only for Enterococcus faecalis, but we were unable to correlate the presence of esp with their capacity to form biofilms.
  5,273 90 4
Incidence of multidrug-resistant pseudomonas spp. in ICU patients with special reference to ESBL, AMPC, MBL and biofilm production
Richa Gupta, Abida Malik, Meher Rizvi, S Moied Ahmed
January-March 2016, 8(1):25-31
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.176142  PMID:27013841
Background: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas spp. have been reported to be the important cause of ICU infections. The appearance of ESBL, AmpC and MBL genes and their spread among bacterial pathogens is a matter of great concern. Biofilm production also attributes to antimicrobial resistance due to close cell to cell contact that permits bacteria to more effectively transfer plasmids to one another. This study aimed at determining the incidence of ESBL, AmpC, MBL and biofilm producing Pseudomonas spp. in ICU patients. Material and Methods: The clinical specimens were collected aseptically from 150 ICU patients from February 2012 to October 2013. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. ESBLs and AmpC were detected phenotypically and genotypically. MBL was detected by modified Hodge and imipenem-EDTA double-disk synergy test. Results: Pseudomonas spp. 35(28%) were the most prevalent pathogen in ICU infections. Multidrug resistance and biofilm production was observed in 80.1% and 60.4% isolates, respectively. Prevalence of ESBL, AmpC and MBL was 22.9%, 42.8% and 14.4%, respectively. The average hospital stay was 25 days and was associated with 20% mortality. Conclusions: A regular surveillance is required to detect ESBL, AmpC and MBL producers especially in ICU patients. Carbapenems should be judiciously used to prevent their spread. The effective antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and piperacillin-tazobactum should be used after sensitivity testing.
  4,485 104 10
State of globe: Enterococci: Virulence factors and biofilm formation
Abbas Farahani
January-March 2016, 8(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.176139  PMID:27013838
  4,266 84 2
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a lung transplant recipient: Isolation of John Cunningham (JC) virus from bronchoalveolar lavage
Tanmay S Panchabhai, Chirag Choudhary, Carlos Isada, Erik Folch, Atul C Mehta
January-March 2016, 8(1):51-54
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.176150  PMID:27013844
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by polyomavirus John Cunningham (JC) virus. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented 16 months after right single lung transplant with worsening memory, behavioral problems, emotional lability, and progressive left upper extremity weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed white matter changes suggestive of PML. JC virus infection was confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from both the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and cerebrospinal fluid. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PCR isolation of JC virus from a BAL specimen. We also review the two additional cases in the literature that describe PML after lung transplantation. JC virus infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lung transplant recipients who develop neurological symptoms. BAL may have a role in the etiologic diagnosis of PML after lung transplantation.
  3,140 48 1
Disseminated tuberculosis involving allograft in a renal transplant recipient
Harsh C Sutariya, Tejal N Panchal, Vaidehi K Pandya, Kajal N Patel
January-March 2016, 8(1):55-56
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.176151  PMID:27013845
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2008 Journal of Global Infectious Diseases | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th December, 2008